Synopsis[ edit ] The Communist Manifesto is divided into a preamble and four sections, the last of these a short conclusion.
Marx was often portrayed by his followers as a scientist rather than a moralist. He did not deal directly with the ethical issues that occupied the philosophers so far discussed. His materialist conception of history is, rather, an attempt to explain all ideas, whether… Early years Karl Heinrich Marx was the oldest surviving boy of nine children.
His father, Heinrich, a successful lawyer, was a man of the Enlightenmentdevoted to Kant and Voltairewho took part in agitations for a constitution in Prussia. His mother, born Henrietta Pressburg, was from Holland.
Both parents were Jewish and were descended from a long line of rabbis, but, a year or so before Karl was born, his father—probably because his professional career required it—was baptized in the Evangelical Established Church. Karl was baptized when he was six years old.
Although as a youth Karl was influenced less by religion than by the critical, sometimes radical social policies of the Enlightenment, his Jewish background exposed him to prejudice and discrimination that may have led him to question the role of religion in society and contributed to his desire for social change.
Marx was educated from to at the high school in Trier. Suspected of harbouring liberal teachers and pupils, the school was under police surveillance. In October he matriculated at the University of Bonn.
The courses he attended were exclusively in the humanities, in such subjects as Greek and Roman mythology and the history of art. He participated in customary student activities, fought a duel, and spent a day in jail for being drunk and disorderly.
A politically rebellious student culture was, indeed, part of life at Bonn. Marx, however, left Bonn after a year and in October enrolled at the University of Berlin to study law and philosophy. Their chief figure was Bruno Bauera young lecturer in theology, who was developing the idea that the Christian Gospels were a record not of history but of human fantasies arising from emotional needs and that Jesus had not been a historical person.
Marx enrolled in a course of lectures given by Bauer on the prophet Isaiah. The Young Hegelians began moving rapidly toward atheism and also talked vaguely of political action. The Prussian government, fearful of the subversion latent in the Young Hegelians, soon undertook to drive them from the universities.
Bauer was dismissed from his post in By the Young Hegelians had become left republicans. Urged by his friends, he submitted a doctoral dissertation to the university at Jena, which was known to be lax in its academic requirements, and received his degree in April His thesis analyzed in a Hegelian fashion the difference between the natural philosophies of Democritus and Epicurus.
More distinctively, it sounded a note of Promethean defiance: Philosophy makes no secret of it. In January Marx began contributing to a newspaper newly founded in Colognethe Rheinische Zeitung.
It was the liberal democratic organ of a group of young merchants, bankers, and industrialists; Cologne was the centre of the most industrially advanced section of Prussia.
He believed that censorship could have only evil consequences. On October 15,Marx became editor of the Rheinische Zeitung. As such, he was obliged to write editorials on a variety of social and economic issues, ranging from the housing of the Berlin poor and the theft by peasants of wood from the forests to the new phenomenon of communism.
He found Hegelian idealism of little use in these matters. At the same time he was becoming estranged from his Hegelian friends for whom shocking the bourgeois was a sufficient mode of social activity.When Karl Marx declared religion the opium of the people, he voiced a central tenet of the philosophy that bears his name.
In this collection of essays and letters by Marx and his colleague, Friedrich Engels, the founders of Marxism discuss their perspectives on the origins and essence of religion/5(4).
Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Religion Essay Words 9 Pages Karl Marx () was the most influential revolutionary socialist thinker of the 19th century. When Karl Marx declared religion the opium of the people, he voiced a central tenet of the philosophy that bears his name.
In this collection of essays and letters by Marx and his colleague, Friedrich Engels, the founders of Marxism discuss their perspectives on the origins and essence of religion.
Karl Marx was born in Germany in His family was Jewish but converted to Protestantism. Marx rejected religion in his youth and made it very clear that he was an atheist.
Marx studied under Georg Wilhelm Friedrich von Hegel. Hegel’s theories and philosophies influenced much of Marx’s thought and later, his theories. Religion as Opium of the People. Search the site GO.
Religion & Spirituality. Atheism & Agnosticism Religion as Opium of the People Karl Marx, Religion, and Economics. Share Flipboard Email Marx did not work alone — he had the help of Friedrich Engels who had, on his own, developed a very similar theory of economic determinism.
Karl Marx: Karl Marx, revolutionary, socialist, historian, Although as a youth Karl was influenced less by religion than by the critical, pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels to serve as the platform of the Communist League. It became one of the principal programmatic statements of the European socialist and communist.